Molecular Switch discovered, one that promotes Heart Cell Maturation

ACLSThe search for regenerative treatments for damaged hearts due to disease has long been impeded by the difficulty of stem cells achieving maturity into more adult-like heart cells. The discovery of a molecular switch that seems to help embryonic heart cells transform from glucose into metabolism based on fatty acids, and into a bigger, stronger, mature heart cells. According to scientists, this would possibly make way for lab methods to be able to grow hearts cells. These discoveries were made by scientists that carry ACLS certification online. ACLS certifcation online is often time required for the doctor or scientist that is performing research.

In the particular interest in stem cell and regenerative medicine, researchers and scientist should gain better understanding of how human hearts mature. This breakthrough finding has the potential to lead to innovative laboratory methods for creating heart cell functions. It has been described on paper in the May 11 Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences.

Professor of biochemistry and senior writer of the paper at the University of Washington, Hanelle Ruohola-Baker believes that they have discovered the master switch responsible for the maturation process, allowing them to induce embryonic stem cells into becoming heart cells.

In the months prior to giving birth and the months that follow, an infant’s heart cells may undergo significant changes. Cells may enlarge, develop complex elements that promote contraction, and may switch from a glucose based metabolism energy into fat based metabolism. These changes yield changes such as a bigger and stronger heart of a newborn.

In the recent study, Kavitha T. Kuppusamy who is lead author and senior head of the lab, executed a transcriptone analysis of RNA. Kuppusamy and Ruohola-Baker both had their best interest in a subset of molecules referred to as microRNA. These are able to control genes, individual expressions, and regulating cell growth, development and function. It was under these circumstances that a 20-day old human embryonic system is utilized, coming from cell-derived cardiomyocytes and the more mature versions of the cells. Generally, it deals with the kind of analysis and details the RNA types and levels produce.

Comparing the 20-day old from more mature 13 -year old cardiomyocytes, the let-7 microRNA was ost remarkable according to Kuppusamy. Though other microRNAs have elevated levels in more mature cells, let-7 multiplied a thousand fold. It affects a number of key genes which regulate glucose metabolism known as the PI3, AKT or insulin pathway.

Kuppusamy and her colleagues further explored the effects that raising and lowering let-7 levels has upon the hECS-CMs. Decreasing let-7 levels make cells revert to glucose based and because smaller, less mature and weaker. Increasing levels made cells switch into fatty-acid based metabolism, became larger and stronger , and more mature.

On top of its effect on insulin pathway, let-7 microRNA drives these changes through acting on other key gene regulators, including EZH2 that covers the expression of a variation of genes, cell development and differentiation.

Findings are indicative of the let-7 microRNA as sufficient and essential to driving maturity of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and that it holds a potential to mature cells in a laboratory dish with the simple addition of a cocktail of microRNAs and infused into cell culture.


Long-Term Depression May Double The Risk Of Stroke

cardiac x-raySummary: Research suggests that long-term depression and it symptoms may double the risk of stroke for people aged 50 and above. The scientists also add diminishing symptoms of depression may not instantly mitigate the elevated risk of stroke.

According to the Journal Of The American Heart Association, constant depression may double the risk of stroke over age 50- and the risk remains higher even after the symptoms go away. The condition can also wreak havoc over the entire body, thereby increasing risk of health issues that at first do not seem remotely associated with feeling low. Such people are also at an increased risk for cardiovascular death and type 2 diabetes.

Paola Gilsanz, Sc.D., Yerby Postdoctoral Research person and lead author at T.H. Chan School Of Public Health at Harvard University said that “depression may augment the risk of stroke over the long term, according to the findings”.

Researchers also used data from approximately 16, 178 people, aged 50 and above, who had been interrogated as part of the Health and Retirement Study about the risk factors associated with stroke, history of stroke, and depression symptoms every two years from 1998 to 2010. The study revealed approximately 1192 strokes over a period of 12 year as compared to people without depression at either interrogation:

. People suffering from high depression symptoms at two consecutive interrogations were more than twice as likely to have the first stroke.
. People who already had depression symptoms at their first interrogation, but not the second had approximately 66 percent higher risk of stroke.

Researchers did not assess whether the symptoms decreased because of the treatment or some other reason. However, the findings of the study suggest that if treatment of depression, even if extremely effective, may not have any instant benefits for the risk of stroke. They also suggest that decreased depression may have a stronger impact on women as compared to men. However, its recent onset was not linked with higher risk of stroke.

Gilsanz also said that “Looking at how these changes in the symptoms of depression over time may be linked with strokes also allowed us to see if the risk augments after elevated symptoms of depression begin, or if risk goes away when the symptoms of depression do”. We were astonished that changes in the symptoms of depression take over two years to elevate or protect against the risk of stroke.

Previous research has also shown that depression is linked with an increased blood pressure, augmented inflammatory responses, and abnormal functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Depression may trigger atrial fibrillation, infections or underlying vascular problems, and such people are more likely to be physically inactive.

Maria Glymour, Sc. D., the associate professor of biostatistics and epidemiology, and senior author at San Francisco School Of Medicine, at the University of California also said that “although we know that depression immensely predicts stroke along with many other risk factors of stroke, but we still need more research, in order to comprehend exactly why connection occurs and whether we can potentially alleviate the risk of stroke by treating depression”.

Benefits of Taking ACLS Certifications Online

It’s not uncommon for people to pursue different types of certifications in order to perform various kinds of job duties and responsibilities. Due to the nature of many medical professional positions, different types of certifications are required in order to work in specific kinds of medical capacities. One of which involves acquiring the ACLS online, which is the acronym for Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support. This certification qualifies health care professionals who are required to work with patients who are experiencing cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary emergencies.

When an individual takes the training for ACLS online, they are required to learn all of the steps and protocol for these situations. Specifically, as it applies to people who have going into cardiac arrest. Which means, they will need to know the steps and protocol that is involved resuscitating the person. Before the individual takes ACLS online courses, they will need to complete certain prerequisites for the class. One of which includes taking Basic life Support (BLS), which is the class that helps an individual to build upon the skills that’s needed in these situations. After this foundation has been laid, the next step in this process involves allowing these health professionals to proceed to the next level in their training curriculum.

In these courses, instructors will teach class participants how they can recognize the signs and symptoms of an individual having a heart attack. Since the information has to be verified by using medical equipment, they will also need to know how to interpret the cardiac rhythm data that they see. Airway management, AED and CPR are also an essential part of learning these processes and treatments. Therefore, if these professionals are acquiring the right ACLS online renewal training, they should make sure that they are learning a wide range of courses in the programs that they have chosen. Some of the more commonly known in this field includes Neonatal Resuscitation, Basic Life Support as well as the intermediate areas of study.

ACLS renewal online Courses vs Traditional Classroom Training

With this being said, it is important for individuals who are interesting in acquiring their ACLS certification to explore the training options that they have available to them. Fortunately, there is a training option available that will allow an individual to take the courses that they need for the certification online. Before signing up or attending an online course, there are specific things that that the person should always look for. One of the most important is making sure that the online course meets specific specifications. With this course materials, the online course requirements must have the approval of the American Heart Association. This means each individual should look for their sign of approval (i.e. logo) on the sites that offer the course material. Once the individual has identified the best online training courses, they can take advantage of the following benefits.

Prices for ACLS renewal online Courses are more Affordable – Students can start the Training Right Away

When individual does their research, they will have an opportunity to shop around for online classes that meet the appropriate requirements, while also searching for an affordable price range that students can pay. Typically, the cost for ACLS course can range between $200 to $300. Therefore, students who have the finances can enroll online and begin their course study work right away. Because the courses are offered online, the material that’s required to be completed can be accessed via a remote location or from an individual’s home. Also, because most people have very crowded schedules, the person can sign up for ACLS renewal online courses so that they can take classes remotely, and have the information that is needed on a 24/7 basis.

Drug May Reduce Risk of Heart Attack in Aids Patients

No longer is having AIDS a prediction of definite death in the near future. Those infected by this deadly virus can lead a nearly normal life, however, since there is no cure, life will never be the same again. Pharmacists have been conducting multiple studies in order to discover a possible solution. While a breakthrough is still to be made, there have been multiple advancements allowing those affected by HIV to lead a better life today.

The patients who have tested positive for HIV have an elevated risk of inflammations that can result in an increased risk of diabetes and heart attacks along with problems with glucose, cholesterol and insulin. This is attributed, at least in part, to the chronic inflammation that takes place. Due to this risk of diabetes and inflammation, a new drug which is still in the trial phases has revealed promising results!

The drug, sitagliptin, both improved metabolism as well as reduced inflammation for those affected by HIV, especially among the patients taking regular antiretroviral therapy. The standard diabetes treatments only show minimal results and are inefficient in completely normalizing blood sugar levels as well as lipid and insulin levels. This is because identifying treatment plans for such patients is extremely challenging due to the reactions these drugs tend have with the HIV antiretroviral therapy drugs that are essential in their daily life.

With sitagliptin, the inflamation, which plays a crucial role in heart attacks and strokes, is reduced, thereby reducing the risk of such complications. The principal investigator, Kevin E. Yarashesk has already stated that with the use of sitagliptin, not only did the sugar levels fall, but there were also definite markers of reduced inflammation and immune activation, indicating long term benefits for the heart, liver and bones of the patient.
The most recent study, which is the second study done to test sitagliptin, involved 36 patients, aged 18-65. After the first study on HIV positive individuals, which determined the safety of the drug, the second study aimed at understanding its effectiveness.
At the beginning of the study, researchers measured the participants’ insulin sensitivity, glucose levels, lipid count as well as several other markers of inflammation and health.
Half of the participants were given the drug whereas the rest were provided with a placebo which they took regularly for eight weeks. Throughout this, the participants continued with their antiretroviral therapy. These preliminary results provided positive results. While a long term study is still required in order to determine the effects of the drug, this has renewed hope for many HIV infected individuals worldwide.
The study has been published in the The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. While the drug is not scheduled for release anytime soon, individuals and researchers are looking forward to it hitting the market in the near future. This is one of the latest in the line of path breaking drugs that can improve and change the lives of individuals across the globe. A disease which was once a death sentence is can now be battled with increased ease.